This is the additional material to main article “For male and female it is wise and healthy always pass urine peacefully in squatting posture“.
Passing urine in squatting posture in Buddhist Monastic tradition
Maha-Assapura Sutta: Part of The Greater Discourse at Assapura [external link]
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Angas. Now, the Angas have a town named Assapura. There the Blessed One addressed the monks, “Monks!”
– “Yes, lord,” the monks responded.
The Blessed One (Lord Buddha) said, “‘Contemplative, contemplatives’: That is how people perceive you. And when asked, ‘What are you?’ you claim that ‘We are contemplatives.’ So, with this being your designation and this your claim, this is how you should train yourselves: ‘We will undertake & practice those qualities that make one a contemplative, that make one a brahman, so that our designation will be true and our claim accurate; so that the services of those whose robes, alms-food, lodging, and medicinal requisites we use will bring them great fruit & great reward; and so that our going forth will not be barren, but fruitful & fertile.’[external link]
Mindfulness & alertness
“And what more is to be done? We will be possessed of mindfulness & alertness. When going forward and returning, we will act with alertness. When looking toward and looking away… when bending and extending our limbs… when carrying our outer cloak, upper robe, & bowl… when eating, drinking, chewing, & tasting… when urinating & defecating… when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, & remaining silent, we will act with alertness’: That’s how you should train yourselves. Now the thought may occur to you, ‘We are endowed with conscience & concern. Our bodily conduct is pure. Our verbal conduct… our mental conduct is pure. Our livelihood is pure. We guard the doors to our sense faculties. We have a sense of moderation in eating. We are devoted to wakefulness. We are possessed of mindfulness & alertness. That much is enough, that much means we’re done, so that the goal of our contemplative state has been reached. There’s nothing further to be done,’ and you may rest content with just that. So I tell you, monks. I exhort you, monks. Don’t let those of you who seek the contemplative state fall away from the goal of the contemplative state when there is more to be done.
Buddhist Monastic Code I, Part Four: The 3 Miscellaneous Rules [external link]
73. Not being ill, I will not defecate or urinate while standing: a training to be observed.
Arguing from the Commentary’s allowance under the following rule, it would seem that a bhikkhu who needs to urinate, finds himself in a public restroom, and can no longer hold himself in while waiting for a toilet, would qualify as “ill” here and so would be able to use a urinal without penalty.
74. Not being ill, I will not defecate, urinate, or spit on living crops: a training to be observed.
The Vinaya-mukha says that crops here includes all plants that are tended — such as in gardens, farms, or lawns — but not plants growing wild. The Commentary includes roots of living trees that appear above ground, in addition to green plants running along on top of the ground. It also notes that the Mahā Paccarī, one of the ancient commentaries on which it is based, includes blowing the nose under the term spitting in this rule and the next.
According to the Vibhanga, there is no offense if — after defecating, urinating, or spitting on a place where there are no plants — the feces, urine, or saliva then spreads to a place where there are plants (§). The Commentary adds that if a bhikkhu looking for a place without crops to do his business can’t find one and is unable to hold himself in any longer, he would qualify as “ill” under this rule.
75. Not being ill, I will not defecate, urinate, or spit in water: a training to be observed.
According to the Commentary, water here includes water fit for drinking or bathing, but not water unfit for such use — e.g., salt water, stagnant water, water already befouled with spit, urine, or feces — or water in a toilet. If there is a flood with no dry ground available, there is no offense in relieving oneself in the water.
As under the preceding rule, the Vibhaṅga says that there is no offense if — after defecating, urinating, or spitting on the ground — the feces, urine, or saliva then spreads into the water (§).
Materials from (14 Mar 2011): http://www.accesstoinsight.org
Passing urine in squatting posture in Islam tradition
Question 1: What is the ruling on a person urinating while standing, is it forbidden or permissible?
Answer: But it is prescribed by the Sunnah for a person to urinate sitting, according to the words of A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said: ‘Whoever told you that the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) urinated standing, do not believe him. He did not urinated except sitting.’ (At-Tirmithi no.12 and an-Nisaa’i no. 29) at-Tirmithi said: ‘This is the best and most correct saying in this matter – also because it is better to guard and protect him from being splashed with his own urine.’
Permanent Committee for Research and Verdicts:
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p36-37, DARUSSALAM.
Material from (14 Mar 2011): http://www.fatwaislam.com/fis/index.cfm?scn=fd&ID=88
Question2: What Islam says about ‘urinating’ by standing?
Is there any “hadith” forbidding it?
It was narrated from ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Umar and Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allaah be pleased with them) that it is allowed to urinate standing up on the condition that there is no risk of drops of urine splashing onto one’s body or clothes, and that one does not expose one’s ‘awrah, because al-Bukhaari and Muslim narrated from Hudhayfah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to a garden belonging to some people, and urinated standing up. There is no contradiction between this and the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), because it is possible that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did that because he was in a place where he was unable to sit down, or he did that to show the people that it is not haraam. This does not contradict the basic principle mentioned by ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) urinated sitting down, because it is Sunnah, it is not something waajib (obligatory) which it is forbidden to go against. And Allaah knows best.
Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 5/88 .
Material from (14 Mar 2011): http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/936709
Question3: I have read here on sunnipath, that it is makruh to urinate while standing. However another muslim, who isn’t sunni, has presented a hadith for me. It says the seal of the prophets, Muhammad (May Allah send His peace and blessing upon him and his family), urinated while standing. I am no scholar, so I cannot explain this by myself. I therfore hope you will give me a detailed answer. This is the hadith: Volume 1, Book 4, Number 224: Narrated Hudhaifa: Once the Prophet went to the dumps of some people and passed urine while standing. He then asked for water and so I brought it to him and he performed ablution.
Answer: wa`alaykum as-salam wa-rahmatullah
The hadith is authentic, and it indicates that it is permissible to urinate while standing. However, other narrations convey to us that the usual practice of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was to urinate in the sitting posture. This is also usually more effective in concealing one’s private parts, and in preventing the urine from splashing back onto one’s body and clothes.
Among the evidence supporting the preferability of urinating while sitting is the following statement by the Mother of the Believers, `A’ishah (may Allah be well pleased with her): “Whoever tells you that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and his Household and grant him peace) used to urinate standing, do not believe him. He only used to urinate sitting.” [Narrated by Tirmidhi and others]
This clearly indicates that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was not in the habit of urinating standing, so much so that his wife, Sayyidah `A’ishah, never saw him do so. Of course, she was not with him at all times, so her testimony does not negate the hadith you mention, but it does establish the preferred usual practice. His having urinated standing once is, however, sufficient to conclude that this is not prohibited, even thought it is not optimal.
Thus, urinating while standing is makruh tanzihi (better to avoid, but not sinful in itself) in the Hanafi school. [ Ibn `Abidin, I`la al-Sunan ] Qadi al-Shawkani (may Allah bless him) has mentioned that the same is the view of the majority of scholars, including the scholars of the Prophet’s Household (al-`Itrah). [ Nayl al-Awtar ] In some cases, it might be inescapable to urinate standing, such as if there is no suitable or clean place for sitting, or if sitting would lead to more splashing, or if one is injured and unable to sit.
And Allah knows best,
Sidi Suheil Laher,
Material from (14 Mar 2011): http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=15025&CATE=239